Let's Play: the speech and language way

Speech and language therapy ideas for playing at home


activities for speech

Station! Station!

It’s a rainy day.  What do you do with your kids?  When I was a child, we played “Station!  Station!”  It was quite possibly the best game ever invented.

Here I go dating myself but… when I was in elementary school we didn’t have cable TV, Ipads, Netflix, cell phones (smart or dumb), electronic toys that spoke to us in other languages, or places called play cafes.  We played outside – even in the rain!  We were fortunate that the neighbors across the street were also similar-aged kids so we all played together.  We would send smoke signals when we wanted to get together.  Ok, not really smoke signals but what did people do before texting?  Well, we actually knocked on each other’s doors or would play charades in our front windows to figure out if we were going to play together outside at that moment.

Once it started raining (not storming – our mothers did impose some limits) we all put on boots and raincoats, collected our buckets and got to WORK (I mean, play, but we took this game seriously).  This was when houses had downspouts that did not go into the ground but just gushed out the water from your roof right on the ground by the side of your house.  Why is this important?  Because in “Station! Station!” the ENTIRE point of the game was to put a bucket at the bottom of each downspout (the “station”) to collect the water.  Then you would take the full bucket and run as fast as you could (without spilling) so you could dump it into the centrally located empty trash can in the center of the driveway.  Yep, this was basically a strategic game of FILL and DUMP – and it was amazing.  When the small buckets at the bottom of the downspouts filled up you would yell “STATION STATION” while you transported your bucket to the trash can so that someone else would replace that bucket you had just taken away.  It was critical that no one let a downspout be without a bucket for even a minute as you would lose precious water.  This is the entire game.  Run around with buckets, collecting rainwater from the downspouts, pouring that water into a trash can.  The big moment came when the trash can was finally filled with water and everyone worked together to push the heavy trash can over and dump the water into the street!

Yep.  That was the whole point.  Fill and dump.  Repeat.

We made up lots of games outside but this rainy day game was special.  We had strategy, we had teamwork, we had messy clothing, we had laughter… WE HAD FUN!

While I can’t exactly recreate Station Station with my own kids due to our downspouts now going into the ground, we can still go outside in the rain and play.  Most kids love splashing in puddles!DSC_0098

I get that playing in the rain isn’t for everyone, but you can also wait until the rain stops and go puddle hunting… After the rain…PUDDLES!

Still aren’t into the idea?  That’s ok.  Here are some INDOOR activities as well…

Playing with…egg hunts!

Indoor play with an active toddler


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Talking with Toys: ball and marble towers

Welcome to my new feature: Talking with Toys!  Not only am I exploring a specific toy or type of toy and it’s use for helping little ones learn speech and language skills, but I will also be highlighting one of THE BEST toy stores right here in my hometown of Westerville, Ohio – Naturally Curious Kids!


First, let’s explore BALL TOWERS (for little ones) and then MARBLE TOWERS (for older little ones).

A ball tower that needs to be assembled is a great opportunity to wonder aloud how each piece should go.  Model simple questions like “here?” “this way?” “next one?” “on top?” and then give yourself answers aloud like “no,” “yes,” “turn it” and “tada!”  Using simple language allows your child to hear your thought process!  After you’ve assembled it correctly a few times you can then ask those questions aloud while you intentionally put pieces in the wrong place and let your child tell you “no,” “yes,” “turn it,” and “tada!”

Storing the balls in a pencil bag that zips creates yet another opportunity for your child to try asking for “help” or “open” or use a “zzzzzzzip” sound.

To extend the assembly process even longer try placing the pieces around the room and then find them “yellow…where ARE you?”  Not yet ready for colors?  Just ask for “more”.

Once the ball tower is ready for its big moment, announce “READY, SET…”  Allow that pause for your toddler to have an opportunity to complete “GO”.  Watch the ball go “down, down, down” and “around, round, round”.

Like to sing?  Take the tune of Wheels on the Bus:

“The ball in the tower goes down, down, down,IMG_20171004_145804122

down, down, down

down, down, down

The ball in the tower goes down, down, down

All day long!”

Want to do it again?  Ask whose turn it is to drop the ball.  If you have more than one child who wants to play then assign duties for turn taking.  One person is the “dropper” – drops the ball.  One person is the “catcher” – catches it at the bottom.  Someone else is the “announcer” – announces “ready, set, go”.

The marble tower is basically the ball tower for older kids (especially ones who won’t put a marble in their mouth).  With an older child allow them to assemble it and even get some pieces turned the wrong way.  That’s a great opportunity to problem solve and use language to figure out which piece needs to turn around.IMG_20171004_145836061  Instead of using 1-2 word phrases you may be talking about which color is needed next, how many pieces you might need, which ones are bigger, and how tall to make the tower.  If forming longer sentences is a challenge for your preschooler then continue to use short phrases and only add one more word or concept to their idea.  You can still keep the marbles in a bag or box that your preschooler may need help to open and you can still play a hide-n-seek type of game for assembling the tower.  Turn taking may be even more important with your preschooler.  If waiting for his turn is a challenge, give him a job to do when it isn’t his turn to drop the marble (just like in the ball tower description above).

For more ball tower-related ideas check out Playing with…pound-a-ball (for ball towers that don’t require assembly).

Ball tower-type toys are great for language and problem solving!  They also (usually) don’t require batteries which is a huge plus for learning speech and language skills.

Where to find these toys and other amazing toys for encouraging language, pretend, problem-solving, fine motor, and social skills?  Naturally Curious Kids.

This gem of a toy store is located in uptown Westerville, Ohio.  It has two floors packed with high quality, well-made toys from brands like: IMG_6136

  • Melissa & Doug
  • Green Toys
  • Playmobil
  • Fat Brain Toys
  • Hape
  • HABA
  • Kidoozie
  • Tegu
  • Usborne Books
  • and many, many more!

Whether you are looking for some new toys for your own kids or if you need a gift for an upcoming birthday or holiday, you really can’t go wrong with anything from Naturally Curious Kids.

Because I love this store so much, I was excited when the owners agreed to give my readers a DISCOUNT!  (Disclosure:  I’m going to give you a specific coupon code to use in order to get a discount.  If you use it, I may receive a small percentage of that sale as a thank you from the retailer for promoting their store.  I would also say thank you to YOU for supporting this blog.)

If you shop online at Naturally Curious Kids use coupon code: ToyTalk and you’ll receive 15% off of your TOTAL order!

If you shop in the store at 13 E. College Ave., Westerville, OH then you can get an even bigger discount of 20% off of your TOTAL order… after you comment on this post from my Facebook page and then show your comment to one of the owners (Linda or Jerilyn – wonderful ladies) at the register!

*These discounts are only applicable to regularly priced items and cannot be combined with any other discounts.  Both are good through NOVEMBER 5, 2017.

If you find a toy that looks interesting, but you aren’t quite sure how to use it to help with speech and language play – just ask me.  Always happy to help.

Happy shopping!!!

Playing with… PLAYDOUGH!

You don’t need to make anything elaborate to enjoy playing with playdough.  I’ve seen lots of great playdough creations with a simple Google search, but I’m mostly thinking about the under 3-year-old crowd and Pinterest worthy creations may not yet be the goal here.  Using playdough to get little ones talking CAN be a worthy goal!  Make your own or buy it.  Just make sure they don’t eat it – ha!

A good accessory kit for toddlers can include basics like plastic scissors or plastic knives, a roller, a few shapes for cutouts, and something to squeeze the playdough through.  IMG_20170901_091818Look around your kitchen to find straws (to make towers or trees for a forest), dry pasta like penne or the circle ones to make wheels), and assorted colored beans for hiding or decorating.  In the straw/pasta activity (pictured), add silly sounds each time the pasta falls down the straw.  Assign each straw a vowel and make that sound aaaaaall the way down.  Count the noodles, name each “tower”, take turns “my turn” and “your turn”, and create lots of opportunities for him to request “help me” when the straw falls over or “more noodles” because you are keeping them out of reach.

In general, pair your words with the actions: “squeeze” or “poke” or “roll”.  Make a long noodle shape – now it’s a snake “ssss” or a train “choo choo”.  When you have lots of little pieces and need to clean up, “push” or “dot dot dot” the pieces back together.

Make a ball and roll it “whee” or pretend it’s a bubble and let your toddler “pop” it/”poke” it with your finger or the end of the rolling pin. IMG_20170921_184412 I use the end of the rolling pin to make wheels on vehicles, pepperoni on pizzas, and cookies – YUM!  IMG_20170921_183246216

Sticking stuff in the playdough is fun!  I mentioned the straw idea above but using some of your toddlers toys to “stick” in the mud to see which ones stay “up” and which ones fall down “kaBOOM” can be seriously silly too.  Get out the potato head pieces and practice body parts.  Run your trucks with big tires through it to make tracks “vroom vroom”.  Have any plastic animals with feet?  They can make tracks too!  Tongue click your horse right through that playdough blob.

Make a thick noodle and each of you grab an end.  Pull it SLOWLY “oooooooo” to see how long you can hold that sound (and how long the noodle gets) before it breaks “uh-oh”.

Stack some balls into a snowman “up, up, up”.  Then squish him as he melts “ewwww”.

Gently push your little one’s hand into the playdough to make an impression.  Then sing 5 Little Monkeys Jumping on the Bed and each time one of the monkeys bumps his head, smooth out that finger until the hand impression disappears (along with the end of the song): “bye monkey”.

Clicking on the photos below will take you to Amazon where you can see product descriptions and pricing.  Disclosure: I am a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means to earn fees by linking to and affiliated sites.


Be sure to “like” and follow my Facebook page for all the latest play ideas and for information about my play classes and parent workshops.

Best PRETEND toys: a speech therapist’s list!

Toys that allow children to PRETEND

Disclosure: I am a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means to earn fees by linking to and affiliated sites.

We’re finally to the “P” in my acronym CAP when thinking about best toys for speech and language development in babies and toddlers.  (If you missed the others, check out CREATE and be ACTIVE).

“P” is for Pretend.  Pretend play is a huge developmental milestone and allows language to really take off!  Many children will lead the way and teach their parents how to engage in pretend play, but others may need parents to offer ideas first.  Babies may be quick to pick up a toy telephone and put it to their ear, but it’s up to the adult to seize that opportunity and model “hi” and “bye” when that happens.img_20150417_173744722

Regardless of toy, keep in mind the basic and familiar routines that your baby or toddler is most familiar with when encouraging pretend play.  In the earliest stages think eating, sleeping, bathing, and getting hurt/falling down.  These four concepts can be used equally for cars, trains, stuffed animals, dolls, dinosaurs, farm animals, and construction trucks.  Vehicles can “eat” (or get gas/coal/fuel) just as a baby doll or animal can eat “mmmm”.  A garage is a place to “sleep” just as a bed or blanket for stuffed animals “night night”, “sssshhhh”.  Animals and dolls get “boo boos” and “uh-oh” the car or train can “crash” just as well.  Both will need to get fixed or have a kiss from mommy or daddy 🙂

With pretend play comes lots of opportunity for language…if the toy isn’t doing all the talking for you.  When choosing baby dolls or cars, opt for “no batteries required”.  That way, YOU and baby get to play however you want!

In the following list, clicking on the picture will take you to should you wish to see description, price, or to purchase.

Pretend play toys include (but are definitely not limited to):

Cars, trucks, trains

Whether they wind up, pull back, or go only when your child pushes them, vehicles of all kinds are a staple toy and mostly universally enjoyed at least to some degree.  You can make race tracks, train tracks, streets out of anything or nothing.  For lots of play ideas, beyond the obvious “make the car noise as you push it”, check out playing with cars and Indoor CAR WASH.

Dolls and stuffed animals

This may be an obvious choice for pretend play, but it’s for a good reason.  Dolls (whether baby dolls, stuffed animals, or superhero action figures) are perfect for practicing feeding “mmmm”, giving a bath “wash, wash”, sleeping “night night” and providing care after getting hurt “boo boo”, “mmmwah (kiss)”, and “all better!”

Stroller for dolls

Allow your toddler to imitate how you push a stroller on a walk in a park.  Take it outside and let them walk their doll or stuffed bunny (in my son’s case).  Model simple language you might use for “buckle” and “go/stop” and “need water?”.  He can even help show the birds and cars and other fun outdoor stuff to his favorite doll – just like you would with him!

Shopping cart

Whether this is actually used for pretend shopping, or just to haul around whatever toys can fit, a shopping cart is good for active AND pretend play!  What toddler doesn’t like a good game of “dump and fill”?  Load it up, transport it, dump it out… repeat.  repeat.  repeat.

Farm with animals

If you find a set you love, but it makes too many sounds or plays long songs don’t put batteries in it right away.  Let your child explore the toy without the distraction – and save yourself some money on batteries!  Aside from the obvious animal sounds you can make, remember those basic pretend play ideas from above (eating, sleeping, bathing, getting hurt).

Play kitchen with food

Here’s another toy for imitating what they see adults do!  Whether you are a fabulous chef or mostly use the microwave, kids can practice getting food ready and then serving it to you or to all of their toys.

Toy phone

I specifically linked the picture for this ONE phone that is NOT electronic.  Sure, most kids will have never seen a phone that even looks like this, but they will learn quickly once you show them and they won’t be distracted by the buttons to push and songs to play on most all other toy phones you can buy.  Maybe I just long for the days when people actually talked to people on a phone… Anyway, phones are great for practicing “hi”, “bye” and having pretend conversations.

Dress up clothes or hats

With a simple firefighter hat or fairy wings, your child has a whole new identity and much more to talk about!  Trying on parents’ shoes is also a fun way to be mommy or daddy.  Costumes are also motivating for practicing getting dressed and asking for help as many kids will love to be a police officer or superhero or princess.


For those who LOVE to watch the mail be delivered, or at least get a card in the mail, playing with a mailbox allows them to imitate that real life, daily activity.  You can also use the mailbox (or empty diaper box) as a sorting toy.  Get those dolls out and deliver mail to each one!


Pretending to feed puppets is a great way to practice “mmm” and “yuck!”  For more puppet play ideas go to playing with puppets

As pretend play gets more advanced, and your toddler’s life experience grows, you can pretend with shopping, cleaning, and going to school.  You’ll have a parade, go to the mechanic, get a check-up by the doctor, visit the zoo, and whip up all kinds of delicious meals in the “kitchen”.  Just pretend with whatever your child knows and knows well.  If you let them lead you, who knows where you’ll end up?!

This is the final post in my “best toys” series:  If you missed any, go back to:

Best toys and gifts: a speech therapist’s list!

Best CREATIVE toys – a speech therapist’s list!

Best ACTIVE toys: a speech therapist’s list!

Just wanted to close with some final notes about toys and communication development:   THE MOST IMPORTANT part of play in order to help children communicate is INTERACTION!  No matter what toy or activity you choose, it’s how you interact with your child and respond to his interests/vocalizations/word attempts that will truly make the difference in learning functional communication skills.  You’ve probably figured out by now that I’m not a fan of electronic or noise-making toys when it comes to play.  However, that doesn’t mean there aren’t some noisy, battery-eating toys in my household!

Everything in moderation.

Although the best toys for communication should not be electronic, that doesn’t mean you can’t give those toys to your kids or that you should ban batteries from your house.  Electronic toys are appealing and entertaining and most kids love to push some buttons.   Just remember NO toy (or video or app or You Tube sensation) is going to be a better teacher for meaningful, functional communication than YOU!

Here’s an idea: If the batteries aren’t included with the toy already, don’t put them in immediately.  See how your child plays with the toy before she figures out what all those buttons do!  Let them explore it without all of the distraction.

A few other general tips for toys…

  1. At holidays, when a toy explosion is coming to your house, put away several (or even half) of what you already have. Kids can be easily overwhelmed with too many toys.  You may find that their attention and ability to play with just one toy can improve with fewer choices.  You can always get those toys back out later…on a snowy or rainy day…or when the “new” toys have lost their luster.
  2. Put toy storage on YOUR list!  Plastic bins, shelving, organizational units can help keep the toy madness at a more manageable level.  It also creates opportunities for children to request toys that may be out of sight or out of reach.  Bonus points if you can get your children to help clean up, too!

Happy playing!

Be sure to “like” and follow my Facebook page for all the latest play ideas and for information about my toddler play classes, parent workshops, and in-home play sessions.


Best ACTIVE toys: a speech therapist’s list!

Toys that allow children to be ACTIVE

Once those babies starting moving…it’s a whole new world of play!  You may spend most of the day chasing your toddler and keeping him safe rather than engaging in extended periods of seated, quiet, “educational” play.  Toys for active toddlers can be expensive (large outdoor swing sets, indoor climbing structures) or totally free (public parks/playgrounds, furniture you already own).

NOTE:  This is part 3 of a series of “Best toys and gifts”.  If you missed the first two, go to Best toys and gifts: a speech therapist’s list! and Best CREATIVE toys and gifts – a speech therapist’s list!

Introducing “ready, set…GO” (allowing your child to fill-in “go”) is an obvious strategy to use with active toddlers.  Using “1..2..3” or some other “something is about to happen” phrase also helps give purpose to the movement and make it more of an interactive game.  Sometimes it’s easy to engage a child in active play (chase me, tag, hide-n-seek).  Other times you may need to BE the hoop for the basketball in order to get your toddler’s attention when they are active!  Either way, here are some toys and communication play ideas for the ACTIVE category:

*NOTE: clicking on the photos will take you to Amazon should you wish to see price, description, or to purchase.  I am a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means to earn fees by linking to and affiliated sites.

Pop up houses or tents

Yes, you can make a “fort” with sheets and chairs or other furniture, but since we’re thinking of gift giving you can also buy pop up houses or tents.  If space is an issue, and if you can figure out how to fold them back up, these can be fun to get out on days when you may be stuck indoors.  “Knock” on the door and practice greetings “hi, hello” or play “I see you”/peekaboo.  Pretend to sleep inside and show your toddler how they can “roar” like a bear to wake you back up.  Turn the lights off, climb inside, and shine a flashlight around the smaller space “oooo aaaah” and then shine the light on your “knee” “foot” etc.
No spill bubbles may still get messy as the wand drips frequently so don’t let the name fool you, but most kids love bubbles and they often need to be refilled which makes it a good, cheaper gift.  Blowing bubbles is active for your mouth muscles which is also great for speech and language development!  Popping bubbles is active for your whole body – clap, stomp, dance, spin, jump… For more ideas check out Playing with…bubbles

Crawling through play tunnels can be a part of an obstacle course or a game of “gonna get you” all on its own.  Slither through on your belly and “sssss” like a snake.  Crawl through like any 4-legged animal and “meow” or “baa” or “roar” your way through it.
Balls of various sizes and textures  

Roll, squeeze, bounce, throw, catch, kick… balls for playtime are a necessity.  Use them to fill up boxes or laundry baskets “in”, “whee” then dump them out “uh-oh” and repeat.  Hide smaller toys in the laundry basket then cover with balls for a searching game “where’s teddy?”  Roll them back and forth to each other and practice turn-taking with pronouns or names “my turn” “Mommy’s turn”.
Music for dance parties

Whether it’s a children’s CD or a gift card to download new songs to a music player, nothing beats music and movement to get early communication skills going!  Gesturing, imitation, sound play are crucial first steps to speech and language development and music is a natural, fun way to learn those skills.  Even if your toddler isn’t into the idea of sitting and singing “Wheels on the Bus,” you can still have an awesome dance party and teach so many great concepts: “stop” or “freeze” when music is paused, imitation of movement “watch me”, march around the room “first” and “last”, change the volume “quiet” and “loud”, change the speed “fast” and “slow”, or just “wiggle” and “shake”!  For more ideas go to Playing with MUSIC and SINGING!
Water table

Take bath play outdoors with a water table!  A great gift for spring/summer, water tables with just a few accessories can be a great way to engage your little one in play.  For more water ideas see my post…Playing in the bath

Going up the ladder “up, up, up” and down the slide “whee” can also be part of your indoor obstacle course.  Use the slide as a car ramp “ready, set go” and race “zoom!”  Put a box/container/basket at the bottom (open side toward slide) and send all kinds of toys down the slide into the box.  Name each one as you play… “go car”!
Colored dots/discs or play mat tiles

Such a simple toy but so great for making obstacle courses, pathways, trails, jumping or sitting spots, following directions, learning colors, etc. etc.  These flexible colored spots (or foam tiles from a play mat) can also be hats, steering wheels, and plates for a picnic.  Put them in a line and name the color as your toddler steps to each one then “jump off” at the end “tada!”

This one breaks my “no batteries” rule but that’s ok because it doesn’t make noise and allows for lots of language and movement!  They may need “help” to turn it “on” but then when the lights are off, you can shine it on different pictures/flashcards on the wall to name them or search for them “where’s the car?”  Playing with flash cards.  Shine the light on the floor and then try to “stomp” on it while it moves side to side.  Ask your toddler to chase or catch the light as you move it in circles.

Here’s another “ready, set, go” opportunity and then “jump, jump”.  Let your stuffed animals have a turn then then “bounce bunny” or “uh-oh” when teddy falls down.  Stack some blocks on it then knock them down with a jump and “crassshh”.  Practice “big” and “little” jumps along with “fast” and “slow”.

The first time my son ever signed “more” was while he was on a swing.  (Go to communicating before words for more information about using sign language.)  He was a constant mover.  I would push it a few times, make silly faces and funny noises at him, then stop the swing and ask him “more?”  It was our communication breakthrough, once he figured out he could put his fingertips together to tell me “push me again, right now, mom!”  Swings are fun for peek-a-boo as they swing back, you lean over and “boo!”  or tickle their feet.
Pop toobs

These are great for “push” “pull” and “help” (as they can be difficult to click together).  Use them for fire hoses, binoculars, microphones, hats, belts… etc.  For more ideas check out playing with pop toobs.

Of course there are many other active toys toddlers love!  Things you can push, pull, climb on, throw, etc.  The key is engaging your child while they play so that communication – even with an active toddler – can be fun and meaningful.

Now that we’ve covered the C (Create) and A (Active) in my acronym “CAP” for toy buying, up next is P (PRETEND).

Be sure to “like” and follow my Facebook page for all the latest play ideas!


Playing with… CARS

Fairly certain my son had a car permanently attached to his hand from the time he could grasp toys until almost 3 years of age! For many young children toys with wheels are a huge fascination. There are LOTS of different kinds and so many accessories to go with them (garages, ramps, etc.)  Pretending with cars is very similar to pretending with dolls.

  • Pretend to feed a doll = put gas in the car (“guhguhguh” or other gas guzzling sound)
  • Pretend to bathe a doll = CAR WASH
  • Pretend a doll gets hurt = car crashes (“kaBOOM” or “crasssshhhh”)
  • Pretend a doll goes to bed = car “sleeps” in a garage (“night night”)

Some of my favorite types of cars are those where you can use toy people to drive them.  Then use family member names:  “Mommy drive”, “Daddy drive”, “go mommy,” “go daddy”, “bye bye Grandma”.  One of our favorite vehicle pretend play activities was “special delivery!”  Deliveries (think dump trucks, school buses, taxis or mail trucks)  are great for practicing taking items/people where they need to go, following directions, and categorizing e.g. take red objects to the red “house” (box) or red piece of paper.

My other favorite vehicle type: any that don’t make noise or require batteries!  Well, that might just be for my own sanity.  Inevitably, if you have a vehicle-lover in your house you may find some emergency vehicles with sirens and lights that start to appear and take over your house – oh wait, maybe that’s just my house.  Emergencies are also good for pretend play  – even if the sirens are a bit nonstop.

Don’t forget all of your favorite vehicle noises:  “beep beep”, “vroom vroom”, “crash”, “ready set go”, “honk honk”, “choo choo”, tire squeals, monster truck engines, sirens, airplanes taking off, helicopters flying, and engines revving.

Other ideas?

  1.  Make a ramp out of box lids “up, down, wheeeeee”.
  2.  Make a parking lot of out blocks “stop, go”.
  3.  Go outside or watch cars from a window. As the cars go by, point and make a car noise then wave “bye”. If it’s a less busy street you can count in between cars to heighten the anticipation or sing the question “where are you” while you wait.
  4.  Use colored duct tape to make a race track on a flattened cardboard box. “start…your…ENGINES…GO!”
  5.  Send Hot Wheels types of cars down empty paper towel rolls.  “woohoo”

Of course, all of these ideas could be adjusted for trains, planes, boats and other types of transportation.

Here are some toy ideas for vehicle play:

For some washable cars, these work well: Viking Little Chubbies Primary Set

Be sure to “like” and follow my Facebook page for all the latest play ideas and for information about my play classes, parent workshops, and in-home play sessions!

Disclosure: I am a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means to earn fees by linking to and affiliated sites.

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